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What is Operating System? Complete Detail about OS

Though this is not our article and even its, not the topic some people request us that please tell us what is Operating System. So by accepting their requests, we will tell you in this article that What is Operating System? It’s Types, Functions and other tasks in complete detail and step by step. So let’s know what is this and what are its functions.

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What is the Operating System? It’s Types, Functions and other tasks

An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function.

Examples of some Operating Systems:

  • Microsoft Windows
  • Apple macOS
  • Linux
  • Unix
  • Android
  • iOS

Important functions of the Operating System

Here are some important functions of the Operating System:

  1. Security
  2. Control over System Performance
  3. Job Accounting
  4. Error Detecting Aids
  5. Coordination between other Software and Users
  6. Memory Management
  7. Processor Management
  8. Device Management
  9. File Management

What is the Operating System Security

The operating system uses password protection to protect user data and similar other techniques. it also prevents unauthorized access to programs and user data.

Control over System Performance

Monitors overall system health to help improve performance. Records the response time between service requests and system response to having a complete view of the system health. This can help improve performance by providing important information needed to troubleshoot problems.

Job Accounting

Operating system Keeps track of time and resources used by various tasks and users, this information can be used to track resource usage for a particular user or group of user.

Error Detecting Aids

The operating system constantly monitors the system to detect errors and avoid the malfunctioning of the computer system.

Coordinating between other Software and Users

Operating systems also coordinate and assign interpreters, compilers, assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems.

Memory Management

The operating system manages the Primary Memory or Main Memory. Main memory is made up of a large array of bytes or words where each byte or word is assigned a certain address. Main memory is fast storage and it can be accessed directly by the CPU.
It keeps tracks of primary memory, i.e., which bytes of memory are used by which user program. The memory addresses that have already been allocated and the memory addresses of the memory that has not yet been used.

Processor Management

In a multiprogramming environment, the OS decides the order in which processes have access to the processor, and how much processing time each process has. This function of OS is called process scheduling. An Operating System performs the following activities for processor management.

Device Management

An OS manages device communication via their respective drivers. It performs the following activities for device management. Keeps tracks of all devices connected to system. Designates a program responsible for every device known as the Input/output controller.

File Management

A file system is organized into directories for efficient or easy navigation and usage. These directories may contain other directories and other files. An Operating System carries out the following file management activities. It keeps track of where information is stored, user access settings and status of every file and more… These facilities are collectively known as the file system.

Types of Operating Systems:

Here are some important types of Operating Systems:

  1. Single User
    1. Single User, Single Task
    2. Single User, Multi-Tasking
  2. Multi-User
  3. Multitasking
  4. Multi-Processing
  5. Embedded
  6. Real-Time

Single User OS:

A single-user operating system is a type of system that has been developed and designed to use on a computer.

There are two types of operating system

  1. Single User, Single Task
  2. Single User, Multi-Tasking

Single User, Single Task OS:

Designed to manage the computer so that one user can effectively do one thing at a time.


The Palm OS for Palm handled Computers

Single User, Multi-Tasking OS:

Designed with a single user in mind but can deal with many applications running at the same time. This type of operating system most people use on their desktop and laptop computers today.


Microsoft Windows, Apple macOS etc.

Multi-User OS:

This type of Operating System allows many different users to take advantage of the computer’s resources simultaneously. It always allows multiple users to access the computer system at the same time. These types of Operating System provides the facility of the time-sharing system and Internet servers as the multi-user systems.


UNIX, VMS and Mainframe Operating systems

Multitasking OS:

These types of OS allows more than one program to run concurrently. These are used for the tasks share common processing resources, such as a CPU and main memory. In the process, only one CPU is involved, but it switches from one program to another so quickly that it gives the appearance of executing all the programs at the same time.


Delian Linux

Multi-Processing OS:

Multiprocessing, in general, refers to the utilization of multiple CPUs in a single computer system. Enables several programs to run concurrently. The term also refers to the ability of a system to support more than one processor and/or the ability to allocate tasks between them


Windows NT, 2000, XP, and Unix

Embedded OS:

An embedded operating system (OS) is a specialized operating system designed to perform a specific task for a device that is not a computer. An embedded operating system’s main job is to run the code that allows the device to do its job. The embedded OS also makes the device’s hardware accessible to the software that is running on top of the OS.


Included Computers in Cars, Traffic lights, Digital Televisions, ATMs, Airplane Controls etc.

Real-Time OS:

A real-time operating system is an operating system intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays. Processing time requirements are measured in tenths of seconds or shorter increments of time.


VxWorks, Embedded OS, RTX, Micro-Controller OS etc.


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